Supernode Proof of Stake, the Next Generation of PoS
Supernode Proof of Stake, the Next Generation of PoS
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ZenSys Archive (Use /r/Horizen!)
Please use our new /Horizen Subreddit ZenCash is a private, decentralized, and reliable platform for communications, transactions, and publishing. In production using zero-knowledge proofs for anonymous transactions with an encrypted memo field stored on the ZenCash blockchain.
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From Platform-based Token to the Public Chain, Will CoinEx Embrace a Paradigm Shift?
The platform-based tokens shine in 2019, but such prosperity does not cover the disadvantage of their single use. How to find new application scenarios in addition to repurchase and destruction, and transaction fee deduction? The answer given by Binance is to expand the ecosystem of the public chain and develop the platform token into a public-chain token in a broader sense like ETH. Not long ago, CoinEx announced its plan to launch a public chain. The CET will not just be a token listed on the platform, but also the basic token in the ecosystem of public chains. Unlike the Binance Chain whose partners serve as its nodes, CoinEx Chain chooses nodes according to the votes of ordinary users. Obviously, this is another paradigm shift for the platform-based tokens to expand the application scenarios. CoinEx Chain is a public chain created by CoinEx’s professional blockchain underlying R&D team for DEX. Different from other DEXs, CoinEx uses three public chains: DEX public chain, Smart public chain and Privacy public chain, three of which parallel each other. They focus on transactions, smart contracts, and privacy respectively, and interoperate through “IBC protocols”. How to get involved in CoinEx Chain’s ecosystem? A detailed interpretation of the CoinEx DEX’s public-chain node recruitment is provided below. How to participate in the CET nodes election? CoinEx’s nodes election rules are simple: Any holder who stakes at least 5 million CET on the chain is qualified, and the first 42 spots in the rankings will automatically be valid validators entitled to the right to generate a block and share proceeds. It should be noted that the process of electing a node is continuous and each block will be ranked. Responsibilities of validators include preventing double signing and DDos attacks, being online all the time, upgrading nodes and configuration, building the private key storage architecture, and participating in community governance. Besides, there are server hardware requirements for running a node as below: https://preview.redd.it/qhqk6uliftt31.png?width=1366&format=png&auto=webp&s=02addf13f8d9e619b70ba75e3a6eef2f1313e6f9 After the mainnet is online (expected in early November), the CET withdrawn from CoinEx can be staked on the chain. Once completed, the staking can be canceled at any time, but it takes 21 days for the CET to return to the account. Private investors holding less than 5 million CET will be entitled to the voting power in the election of validators and receive bonus as rewards. How are the returns on being a CET validator? With a study on CoinEx’s node return model, you may find returns on validators mainly come from two parts, respectively, the block reward and transaction fee. The transaction fee includes the gas fee in the usual sense and the function fee. Relevant gas fees will be charged for any transaction initiated on the chain, and the corresponding function fee will be charged for special operations on the DEX chain. For example, equivalent to a DEX broker, a node will charge users for such operations as order matching, token issuing, trading pairs creating, automated market making with Bancor and address alias setting. In terms of block rewards, the CoinEx Foundation will provide a total of 315 million CET for five consecutive years. To be specific, it will send out about 105 million CET in the first year and 10 CET for block rewards. Similar to the bitcoin design, block rewards will gradually decrease over time, yet at various levels of frequency. Every year 2 CET will be deducted from the reward for each block. https://preview.redd.it/tmocf00lftt31.png?width=1566&format=png&auto=webp&s=e68bed2c3513e4665a2101229a0d781ff31f53f5 The basic data of CoinEx is shown in the figure below. According to this condition, the estimated annual income of transaction fee for CoinEx’s validators comes at around 38 million CET, and, if calculated at 50% for the staking rate of the whole network, the annualized rate of return for CoinEx’s validators is 10%. That is to say, in a case of successful re-election of CoinEx’s validators, the basic token-standard return rate will be around 10% for the first year. This figure will be higher due to the relatively small total stakes in the beginning. How to calculate the actual income of the year? Here we’ve summarized a calculation formula where numbers can be quickly inserted for your reference. Suppose the total stakes on a node are a, p% of which is the CET staked by the node itself and q% of which is CET entrusted to be staked by retail traders, the total stakes of the whole network are b, the actual returns distributed by the whole network are c, and the commission ratio of the node is k, then the actual income of the validator for the year is ac(p%+kq%)/b. For example. Suppose the total stakes at a node are 10 million CET, including 8 million CET staked by the node itself and 2 million CET staked by ordinary CET holders and the commission ratio of the node is 10%. Calculated with the total stakes of the whole network being 1 billion CET and the actual returns distributed being 150 million CET, the actual income of the validator for the year is 1.23 million CET. In such conditions, the annualized rate of return for CET is around 15.3%. So we can see that the actual income of the CoinEx’s validators can be divided into two parts in terms of asset ownership: incomes from CET staked by the node itself and commissions from CET staked by ordinary holders. https://preview.redd.it/4ghx0sloftt31.png?width=634&format=png&auto=webp&s=7b8df5a18cc8033c77473017cee7182f1c080c8b In other words, if a validator can keep the CET public chain in safety, contribute to the development of CoinEx’s ecosystem, and help it gain more attention and favor from ordinary users, it can receive an annualized income that is higher than the basic staking income. Retail users may stake their CET on more professional and responsible nodes, as well as sharing the dividends of the node and the CET public chain. In the nodes election, the Matthew effect has always been a topic of criticism. So will ordinary token holders drive the centralization of validators according to CoinEx’s rules? The answer is no. Yet just as in the case with all other PoS models, inevitable is moderate centralization, or in other words, the trade-off between decentralization and centralization. That is because, at least mathematically, the annual income from CET staked by retail traders on different validators relies on k, which is the commission ratio of the node, with a and q% of retail traders holding the same amount of CET remaining the same. That is to say, in terms of economic efficiency alone, the income of the retail trader’ votes for different nodes does not depend on the scale, but on the proportion of transaction fee and more implicit reasons such as the security and reliability (or reputation) of a node. There are many other public chains adopting the “Supernodes” election, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of CoinEx? There are many public chains adopting such “Supernodes” election mechanism, among which EOS and IOST are best known. So what are the similarities and differences in the nodes election between CoinEx and its counterparts? From the perspective of the nodes election, IOST needs 2.1 million votes (one vote for one token). According to the price of 0.0044 US dollars when this document is published, it costs at least USD 9,300, a really low threshold. Blocks.io shows that EOS now requires about 290 million votes (30 votes for one token) for the top 21 supernodes. According to EOS REX’s data, if a consortium without a user base wants to get a block-generating right by renting tokens, it will cost around USD 2.55 million a year, approximately RMB 18 million. By contrast, the threshold for a CoinEx Chain’s node is only 5 million CET, a moderate cost of USD 100,000 approximately estimated at USD 0.02. In terms of hardware, according to the hardware configuration mentioned above, it costs USD 1,000 per year. The estimated operating cost of AWS for t3.xlarge is USD 1,458 per year, and one master with a backup costs only USD 2,916 a year. (The specific data will change slightly in practice.) Take the recommended server for running a node when EOS officially announced its node election. It uses Amazon AWS EC2 host x1.32x Large, with 128-core processor, 2TB memory, 2x1920GB SSD storage space and 25Gb network bandwidth. The operating cost of such a server, with one master and one backup, is: 13.338*24*2 = USD 640 a day. (The bandwidth cost allocated to the day is negligible.) It is thus obvious that CoinEx costs less, avoiding the waste arising from servers such as EOS and thus eliminating the intangible cost. From the number of nodes, CoinEx Chain has 42 validators, EOS has 21 block-generating nodes per round, and IOST has 63. CoinEx Chain stays in the middle of the decentralization-and-efficiency trade-offs. In addition, the estimated hardware cost of the CET node election is USD 1,000 a year, which is relatively low. Overall, CoinEx Chain’s nodes election is designed in a reasonable way, which is destined to be a milestone for CoinEx. Once “trade-driven mining” at CoinEx and it has even gone through “repurchase and destruction”. Now it targets the DEX public chain, which is deemed as a paradigm shift that lifts CET out of the pattern of being platform-based tokens. Let’s look forward to its future development. Follow CoinEx Chain on Social Channels: Twitter: https://twitter.com/CoinExChain Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CoinExChainOfficial/ Telegram: https://t.me/CoinExChainOrg
Why support Graft Payment Network? - It's not mere shilling!!
First of all, I kindly request you not to consider this a mere shill. And second, it's known that the name "Graft" has a unintended negative meaning and currently they are looking for rebranding. So let's not cry on the name. Now let's get on. What Graft is trying to achieve is to serve as a payment network like Visa & Master for Cryptos but in a completely decentralized manner. It is offering PoS solutions for merchants through its application that could be used on Verifone terminals (yes the same Verifone terminals we encounter in our day to day lives). Verifone has announced it officially as well. But why Graft? The proposed complete payment system surely has the potential to take on Visa and Master. We see Cryptocurrencies (like Tenx and some other) issuing Visa cards to spend the cryptos. The very essence of Bitcoin's existence becomes an Irony when Visa is used as an intermediary again! Graft's proposed coldpay card will be a great alternative. All the working components of the Ecosystem - [Supernodes (that provide RTA), payin Exchange brokers (to atomic swap cryptos), payout exchange brokers (to settle merchants in USD)], to name a few, everything is decentralized. And with its own blockchain and Masternodes it's highly scalable to handle any future loads on the network. The Ecosystem planning is described in a very detailed manner in its white paper and it's so complete even to handle the merchant loyalty points for customers. Why asking for support now? Just to create awareness as Many would have not heard of Graft because of lack of exchanges at this point of time. Want the exchanges like u/CoinBaseu/binanceu/HuobiCanadau/Bittrex to support the Project like these by evaluating them and listing them for free. The team is delivering on the things with Supernode release on the verge. Sure when Graft hits Verifone terminals it would certainly drive crypto adoption. And it would be boon to the entire crypto community. Support the projects that deserve!!! https://www.graft.network
Q: There are so many blockchains these days and they are quite competitive. What plans does QuarkChain have in place to encourage the community to support this project continuously? A: We will continue to post our development process, ecosystem building and many more on our social media including Twitter, Telegram, Medium, Steemit, and Reddit. Except for previous 100+ volunteers helping us test our testnet, since our testnet 1.0 has been released, there are more than 3000 community members have joined the testing. We also have developer communities which are under development.
Q: Can you introduce your partners? A: We have built strategic partnerships with 30+ global projects such as Tripio, Bodhi, and Laya.one. We also have plans to build deeper relationships with 10 projects including Covalent Chain, DxChain, Drep, Playtable, ValPromise, Ankr, MXC, LendChain, EON, and Celer. Besides, we also partner with Certik in Smart Contract audit. More partnership will be built.
Q: What’s next in the roadmap? A: We will introduce our next plans in three major parts.
1）Development The first thing we need to do is to make sure our testnet is stable and keep optimizing our systems. We have found that there are many places, not only in scalability part but also in virtual machine and storage part, that we can improve in the following several months. We are also preparing articles of our technical details for open source several months later. We want to encourage community members to participate in our project and make our project not only our own project but also the community’s project. Another big thing we are focusing on currently is our mainnet which will be launched in several months. The main feature of the mainnet is that we can increase capacity on-demand as the network grows, and it will work as a scalable smart contract that can do whatever ETH can do but with greater scalability. 2）Marketing Currently, we only separate our market into Chinese, English, Korean, Japanese, Russian parts. We will have more strategies to open for different markets including, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, India and Europe. We will do more local stuff and enlarge our local community. Moreover, with the launch of testnet, we will build developer communities. At the beginning of August, we are going to hold the biggest hackathon in the Bay Area with Google ABC. There are only three projects to be selected and we are very honored to be one of them. At that time, there will be many programmers from big companies such as Google, Facebook and Linkedin building dApps on top of us on this two-day hackathon. We also have our 50 million eco-fund to establish an open and collaborative ecosystem of QuarkChain and 30 partners after just one month on Binance. 3）Korean Marketing We recently had the signing ceremony with a very strong insurance company in Korea who has revenue of 20 million per year and decides to go blockchain and global. We also have several contracts ready including a leading AI company and leading financial institution in Korea. You will hear more news about Korean marketing very soon.
Q: Why the current circulating supply seems too low compared to the declared total 10 billion circulating supply? Please note that 40% QKC will be used for MINING and is already locked by Smart Contract. Private sale is locked to protect public sale investors. The first release of private sale is 10% and it will be released in about ONE MONTH after the QKC is listed on exchange. You could see the circulating supply schedule detail here: https://support.binance.com/hc/en-us/articles/360004471832-Binance-To-Open-Trading-For-QuarkChain-QKC-and-Risk-Warning Other token allocation includes 15% for the team, 15% for the foundation, and 5% for advisors. These are all locked up to 2 years with vesting plan using smart contract and will be unlocked gradually.
Part 2: Technical Questions
Q: What kind of language is QuarkChain using for development? A: Currently, QuarkChain is developed in Python. The main reason for choosing Python is its fast deployment so that QuarkChain team could focus more on technology. Actually, we already obtain pretty decent performance results these days, and we could easily achieve much higher performance by employing other high-performance languages such as C++ and Go. Note that early Ethereum development also used Python, but later Go implementation becomes popular after Ethereum got more attention.
Q: What does Collaborative Mining of QKC means? A: QuarkChain will utilize GPU-friendly mining algorithms, which is still under development. QuarkChain Network has several minor blockchains (shards) and one root blockchain. Each minor blockchain offers different incentives and difficulties. Miners could choose any minor blockchain at an optimal price of their hash power. This creates an open market economic model, where a blockchain is a seller with goods being the block reward, while a miner is a buyer with hash power being their currency. It is desirable that a marketing model is designed with features ensuring that though each party in the market pursues their interests, the collective behaviors of each party can benefit all. The goal of collaborative mining is to design incentive mechanisms and difficulty algorithms so that (1) Hash powers are incentivized to distribute evenly among shards. This ensures that all shards are mined evenly, and thus the system throughput (i.e., TPS) increases as the number of shards increases; (2) The root chain has a significantly large portion (over 50%) of hash power over the whole hash power of the network. This prevents double-spend attacks, and a malicious miner needs at least 50% * 50% = 25% power to perform an attack.
Q: What is QuarkChain’s relationship with DAG or other Tangle technology? A: “The tangle is what is known as a directed acyclic graph (DAG): a data structure that moves in one direction without looping back onto itself. ” (from https://www.nasdaq.com/article/what-is-the-tangle-and-is-it-blockchains-next-evolutionary-step-cm911074) The system of QuarkChain Network itself can be treated as a well-structured DAG. This allows QuarkChain to inherit a lot of benefits from both blockchain and general DAG technique. For example, the consensus of QuarkChain and its threat model can be easily derived/analyzed following those of Bitcoin/Ethereum blockchain, while QuarkChain achieves high throughput similar to general DAG. Given two blockchains/DAGs of QuarkChain, we could easily tell which one should be appended thanks to QuarkChain’s root chain.
Q: How does cross-shard communication work in QuarkChain? A: The QuarkChain Network fully supports cross-shard transactions as the first-class citizen, in a sense that: (1) Any user could issue any cross-shard transaction at any time; (2) Cross-shard transactions can be confirmed in minutes; (3) The throughput of cross-shard transactions could be scaled linearly as the number of shards increases. In short, the cross-shard transaction is almost the same as in-shard transaction except that the root chain needs to confirm the block header of the transaction before spending the output of the cross-shard transaction.
Q: It seems there would be different nodes with different roles, all interconnected. How do you plan to prevent them from exploiting the role-playing model? As I understand it, you will manage and audit the network of voluntary nodes, then how do you call it “public blockchain”? Also, sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data, nor completeness of the collection of shards. How do you guarantee longtail operation will be smooth and stable? What if there aren’t enough volunteers to participate? A: (1) For the first two questions, nodes (machines) trust each other to form a cluster acting as a full node. Anyone can run their cluster to participate in the network. Thus, we don’t manage clusters directly; (2) For the third question, there will be data completeness for an individual shard. Sharding and persistence are not mutually exclusive and we don’t understand why you think sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data. All major data stored in Amazon, Facebook and Google use sharding to achieve scalability, and we are pretty sure persistence is guaranteed; (3) For the last question, mining is about incentives. We can try to solve the cold start problem by encouraging mining with relative greater incentives at the beginning.
Q: Is that possible to say a dApp to seamlessly run on multiple shards if one shard cannot provide the necessary throughput? If that possible, as cross-shard transactions are slower, wouldn’t that create somewhat of a bottleneck as well? A: There is a topic of a scalable smart contract. We are working toward this feature, and a lot of interesting things are ongoing. Also, it depends on how the dApp is configured as well. Take CPU as an example, once Intel/AMD reached the clock speed limit, they realized multi-core should be the next design paradigm, which means performance software should also change the paradigm to fully leverage multi-core CPU architecture.
Q: Number of Nodes — Can you explain to me if the more nodes, the better? Is that possible for QuarkChain to reach high TPS with fewer nodes (to prevent slower network)? A: It depends on how these nodes are organized. If all nodes would like to reach the same chain consensus, then the more nodes in the network, the slower the network is. Generally speaking, the more nodes in the network, the more decentralized the network is. Thus, we could achieve the high TPS with fewer nodes, but this will sacrifice decentralization, which is what we want to encourage. This shows the trade-off.
Q: Number of shards — How does the number of shards are selected, how many nodes will be there in the number of shards? As per the white paper, each shard will have its difficulty and reward mechanism. How is it defined? So it means miners can switch over between the different shards depending on mining difficulty and can try to get maximum rewards? How is this mitigated? Is there any sort of EDA or there is a limitation for miners switching between shards? How is this more decentralized than usual PoW solution? A: The number of shards is determined by the network situation and could be done by our governance model. The miner could mine any shards, depending on block reward, difficulty, and network propagation of the major miners of the shard. More decentralized is mainly because a miner could mine a shard directly instead of joining a mining pool. The motivation for joining a mining pool is to collect reward timely as an exchange of transaction fee of pooling. By mining the shard directly (as the difficulty is lower), the miner could save transaction fee and encourage more decentralization.
Q: Clustering — It is a good idea where the “honest nodes” are clustered to run as a supernode and will involve the root chain to confirm the transactions between them. There will be the incentive for the nodes to form clustering. How does this “Honest nodes” are selected for clustering or is it something which the nodes can do themselves? If they can do themselves? What prevents the malicious miners to collude and form a cluster of their own? How is this mitigated? A: A cluster is a replacement of a super-full node, but still serving as a peer in the network. Therefore, as long as there are sufficient peers (clusters) in the network, any blocks from the malicious cluster (peer) will be rejected. At the moment, a smart contract can be only administered in one shard. A cross-shard transaction is to transfer QKC from one shard to another shard, and thus a user with a single private key will be able to execute a smart contract transaction in any shard. A cluster — as a replacement of a super-full node — maintains the full ledger of the network and thus knows all chains. In addition, double spending attack is mitigated by root chain’s hash power via root-chain first consensus algorithm. Please refer our white paper for more details.
Q: Does QuarkChain have any plans to move away from the EVM for dApps with many other VM’s coming out, such as NEO’s VM. Or do you intend to create your own VM? A: We may develop our own VM if needed, but this highly depends on the feedback of our dApps partners. Even though there are so many VMs, a lot of them lack systematic supports (such as editor, compiler, debugger). To our best knowledge, EVM is the most-adopted VM right now, and other candidates could be NEO VM, EOS VM, and ETH WASM. Currently, we don’t have the plan to swap VM but will add more supports for new VMs, i.e., adding new shards to support new VMs or even new consensus algorithms. This shows another advantage of our sharding technique on enabling this flexibility. In this situation, QKC will be the GAS, and other VMs may have different token models. We need to figure out the proper way to incorporate them. However, this should happen after the launch of mainnet.
03-23 01:12 - 'ZB.com, ZBG, BW Announces First LaunchPad with V SYSTEMS by Sunny King' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/SaralYukihira removed from /r/Bitcoin within 34-44min
''' [link]7 Hong Kong, 21 March 2019 — World leading cryptocurrency exchanges ZB.com, ZBG, BW have announced the LaunchPad Program and its first coin sale partnership with V SYSTEMS, a blockchain project spearheaded by the creator of Proof of Stake consensus, Sunny King. It will be the first coin sale partnership conducted by ZB.com, ZBG, BW LaunchPads, which offer token listing and all-round consulting services for projects. V SYSTEMS coin sale will be launched on 27 March 2019. A coin sale partnership is organized with an exchange platform acting as intermediary between the token issuer and interested contributors. Unlike traditional token sales which usually involve complicated on-chain transactions, contributors can simply register an account on the exchange and buy the token directly from the exchange platform. Many leading exchanges including Binance, OkEx and Huobi have already launched dedicated LaunchPad programs. BitTorrent recently held an LaunchPad with Binance Launchpad and successfully raised US $7.2 million in around 18 minutes. Given the stake on reputation, exchanges usually perform strict due diligence and select only promising ventures to partner for a coin sale partnership. By partnering with one of the top 10 exchanges in the world, V SYSTEMS has received yet another strong signal of trust from the cryptocurrency community, after having [listed its VSYS Coin]1 on top exchanges including Bitfinex and KuCoin earlier this year. V SYSTEMS is a blockchain database cloud project led by Sunny King, the creator of Proof of Stake consensus. The project will deliver the world’s first object-oriented general purpose distributed database, which is empowered to carry complex decentralized applications. By utilizing its newly developed Supernode Proof of Stake (SPoS) consensus mechanism, V SYSTEMS is building a platform to deliver cost-effective, scalable and easy-to-develop blockchains. Speaking on the partnership, CEO of V SYSTEMS, Dr Alex Yang, said, “We’re honored to partner with ZB.com, ZBG and BW for the coin sale. Removing the entry barrier will be a major step in pushing forward the materialization of Sunny King’s vision. We envision the partnership to not only encourage the adoption of VSYS Coin, but also further promote the coin leasing functionality where coin holders simultaneously govern the blockchain and earn minting rewards as incentives.” V SYSTEMS coin sale is set to launch on 27 March, with a supply of 45 million VSYS Coins on ZB.com, ZBG and BW LaunchPads. # # # LaunchPad Announcements by ZB.com, ZBG, BW: [ZB.com]2 | [ZBG]3 | [BW]4 About V SYSTEMS V SYSTEMS is a blockchain database cloud project led by Sunny King, the inventor of Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus. By delivering Supernode Proof of Stake (SPoS), the next step in freeing consensus from Proof of Work’s costly link to energy consumption, V SYSTEMS is building a platform to deliver cost-effective, scalable and easy-to-develop blockchains. In addition to SPoS, V SYSTEMS is focused on three further pillars of development toward universal scalable blockchains: decentralized full-featured databases for storing object-oriented data; cloud and modular tools to enable developers to create custom blockchains efficiently; and VSYS Coins, which enable participation in the V SYSTEMS platform development process by providing access to network services and incentives. The project will deliver the world’s first object-oriented general purpose decentralized database to carry complex decentralized applications. Official website: [[link]8 Whitepaper of V SYSTEMS: [[link]9 ''' ZB.com, ZBG, BW Announces First LaunchPad with V SYSTEMS by Sunny King Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: SaralYukihira 1: me*iu*.com/**y**e*s/v-*ys*e*s-lists-v*ys-coin*on-bitfi*ex-ku**i*-***-bitforex-2*c*76bf*c4e 2: ***.zb.*n/me*s*ge/noti*e/143 3: zbg.z*nd*s*.com*hc/en-us*ar**cles/36002*0**0*4-In*roduc*ng-*-SYS*EMS-V**S-T**en-Sale*on-ZB*-L*un**p*d 4: bwexchange*z**de*k*com*hc/e*-us*a*t**les/****2*2992*2**SYS-*ublic-Chain-will-l*unc***n-BWTokens***unc*Pad-on-*arc*-27th-an*-Open-H**-Sel*i*g 5: www.v*sys***s/ 6: w*w.v.sys*ems/pd*/vsys*hit***p*r.*df 7: ***ed*.i*/*vv95*pljrn21.jpg 8: www.v.s*st*m*/]^^* 9: www.v.*y*t*ms/pd**vsysw*itep*pe**pdf]*^6 Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
General info and list of exchanges for Thingschain (TIC)
The Problem Of Current Blockchain Not Suitable For IoT. 1) Problems with scalability 2) IoT devices are generally small sensor devices and are not equipped to do heavy computations. 3) IoT devices don’t have space for storing complete blockchains and independently verifying them. 4) IoT devices are not able to connect with peers all the time. 5) Slow Performance: Bitcoin (7 TPS), Ethereum (20 TPS), Ripple (1500 TPS), ... How Thingschain Can Solve The Problem Radiating Blocks Graph Radiating block graphs is developed based on DAGs. A DAG is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles. It consists of finitely many vertices and edges, with each edge directed from one vertex to another. Blockchains Packed in Blockchain This structure will increase the storage capacity, process more transaction confirmations per second and provide more security. A two-layers structure will also decrease the size of the blockchain which nodes are needed to store. Cross-chain Communication Cross-chain Communication is expected to be used with high frequency in IoT applications. Thingschain’s technology is motivated to design cross-blockchain communication in a fast and cost-effective way. Proof of Truth ThingsChain will use a proof of truth consensus mechanism which will ensure that only correct data is stored in the NestChain. It’s a consensus mechanism which allows only real transactions or information confirmed by supernode to be stored in Nestchain. About Thingschain Thingschain: Blockchain 4.0 ThingsChain is a next-generation platform for IoT devices based on blockchain technology. It uses a multilayered architecture which provides a solution to the issues faced by current blockchains like lack of scalability and low transaction throughput rate. The goal of ThingsChain is to create a trustless and decentralized system in which transactions are similar to real world transactions. ThingsChain accomplishes it by designing its network as a multi-layer blockchain with double consensus algorithm to allow transactions to be linked with additional information on-chain. Users, developers, node operators, organizations, enterprises, crypto-exchanges, partners and other blockchains. EXCHANGE LIST Binance Huobi Kucoin Bibox Qryptos Satoexchange BIGone Bitrue Bilaxy Bit-Z Linkcoin SECURE WALLET Ledgerwallet Trezor
Substratum leads Round 2 of Monthly Community Voting Round - AMA Transcript Inside!
Hey guys, If you haven’t noticed on Binance’s monthly community voting round – it has been a tight battle but Substratum has been taking the lead. I wanted to explain why Substratum has seemingly come out of no-where but has garnered some attention. Substratum is creating a solution to a very big obstacle in the world web. The below has been taken from Justin Tabb aka the Founder of Substratum and summarises what the purpose of the network is. I hope you guys can support their vision by voting for Substratum (SUB) on the https://www.binance.com/vote.html. The Substratum Network will bring the decentralized web worldwide without the need of special software for the average internet user. We will be able to serve Substratum Requests directly to the default browser (Safari, Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer) without any special software installed on the average consuming users computer. How Substratum Works Ease of Use: currently nearly everything that has to do with crypto or the blockchain is very difficult to use and requires technical knowledge. Through our 10+ years of experience working with companies like Apple we understand the importance of a good user experience. • The average internet user requires NO special software to use the Substratum Network. The default browser will service all requests for average users so they do not need to do ANYTHING different. Users who wish to service requests and receive SUB coins in return will have a point and click user interface that any user can setup. No technical knowledge required. SubstratumPay will be seamlessly integrated and geared towards high conversions of low technical expertise users. • Serving Up of Decentralized Content: Substratum provides a method for serving Decentralized Content (including Web Sites, Data, and Applications) through a Mac, Windows, and Linux application/service that is easy to install and run (requires no technical expertise) and serves up decentralized content using the toolkit that we have developed. This is a point and click process and requires zero technical knowledge. All the user has to do is install the application, click through a few settings and they are up and running and making Substratum Coin. Incentivizing Users to Serve the Content: in order to incentivize users to run the Substratum Network client on their machine we will be providing Substratum Coin to them for doing so. The coin is issued to the serving machine through a micro-transaction from the hosting site to the serving computer. By breaking fees down to a micro-transaction level this will greatly reduce the overall cost to companies and entities that want to host sites and applications on the internet solving yet another problem with the web as it stands today. Privacy / Security / Encryption: by allowing millions of Substratum Network users to serve content the biggest concern becomes privacy and security. Substratum solves these issues through advanced cryptography algorithms rooted in Artificial Intelligence that ensures all data remains secure. Following the lead of BitCoin this is the strength of cryptocurrency and the crypto movement. Storage and Serving of Content: in order to serve millions of sites, databases, and applications the Substratum Network employs custom developed advanced compression algorithms and machine learning to geolocate the right Substratum Network machine to serve up the content to the appropriate user based on geolocation, this will ensure the fastest load time with the lowest amount of latency and strain on the Substratum Network and both the serving and receiving machine. DNS (Domain Name System): DNS or the Domain Name System is the system that currently tells your browser where to go when you type in a domain name. For instance when you go to Chrome and type in apple.com a DNS lookup is performed to check where to send that request, the DNS system comes back with an IP address and your request is routed there. In the first version of SubstratumDNS will be a complex, AI enabled DNS server that will receive DNS requests along with the geolocation of the requestor and find based off of that information the closest available SubstratumNode that is able to fulfill the request. Development Tools for the Decentralized Web: the Substratum Network will provide an API and SDK for developing tools on the Substratum Platform. This will bring in strong developer support and will accelerate the growth of the decentralized web on the Substratum Network. Net Neutrality: with the Substratum Network ALL web-sites and applications will have EQUAL ability to be broadcast in an equal and fair manner. International Digital Barriers: currently countries like China have strict regulations on what their 1.379 billion citizens are able to interact with on the internet. Substratum will break down these barriers through a network of decentralized computers running the Substratum Network Software. Where other solutions that are currently used by residents in these countries require special software to be installed, like TOR, Substratum will take a reverse approach and require no special software for the average user. High Hosting Costs: currently businesses must pay high hosting fees to get their web-sites on the internet. Amazon Web Services launched a 3.5BIL USD per year business by attempting to solve this problem. They allow you to pay for how many minutes you run a web / database server. Substratum completely solves this problem through the power of cryptocurrency by only charging for each request that is processed. You can check out the website here: • Substratum.net o And the whitepaper is available in multiple languages inclusive of Mandarin. Furthermore, Substratum and the founders are very active in the slack – which they have recently hosted an AMA (ask me anything); I took the liberty of getting this information and if you are interested about the project to read more into it. Obviously they can’t reveal the inner workings of their product due to product sensitivity and being ahead of their competition but they are always up to date with the community through several videos on Youtube (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxUJoTH0XLERKl55zGnFI6g) and announcements through their social media. I recommend you follow them. Q: Any major talks with exchanges yet? A: We just announced that we are launching on our FIRST official exchange of COSS.IO on 9/30 trading against BTC and ETH. More to follow. Q: Will I be able to run a supernode? A: From the beginning NO. Supernodes will only be for Substratum; however, they will run the SAME software that are used to run a NODE. In time we will develop a requirement list to run a supernode. If you qualify you can then run a SuperNode and receive a premium payout Q: Is it possible to show a few examples of SUB payouts you get from running a node, and the tell us the ratios that affect the amount/way to calculate it somehow? (SUB owned, for how long you've been running a node etc..) Or is that still in testing? What's the difference in node rewards from someone who has 0 SUB's as opposed to someone who has X amount of SUB's? A: So the calculations for this are in process; however, you can watch our video "How Substrate Per Request Is Calculated" on our YouTube channel for an idea of what variables go into each calculation Q: How do we prevent DDoS? A: The first step is not talking about how we prevent DDoS or any other hack. We call that security through obscurity. :slightly_smiling_face: Secondly, one of the primary ways to prevent a DDoS attack is decentralization. Well that's perfect. Lastly, there are other techniques, like black-holing and basically shutting a node down. The great news is that we will be decentralized so we are only talking about a node or specific IP Address that will not disrupt the network. :thumbsup: Q: Say i got a website i want to publish on Substratum, how does this process go? A: Just a shout out if you ask for a lot of detail regarding technology stack and how exactly something will work we are most likely going to give you general answers. This is not to skirt the question. We want to be 10 steps ahead of anyone with nefarious plans before we get launched. You will be seeing more on this very soon. You should be seeing a video drop on this in the next week or two. The goal is to make this easy to use and powerful, plus empower others to use the tools. We're looking at things to different ways one is towards the average user who just want something sitting on their system and doesn't need any more details and the other is a super user who wants a lot of configuration options. Q: When more people will use Substratum and more will run nodes, the value of SUB will increase. How will it be calculated how much SUB you get as a reward for running a node as value increases? Will it be calculated by Substratum itself or will it be changed manually every so often? A: We will be calculating against the live value of Substratum Q: Is substratum detectable, for example if it’s used in a country like china and they are caught on these sites that are blocked by government… Can it be detected? A: The goal is to make it constantly moving. We do not want it to be. fast, easy, powerful, anonymous. Q: Will there be Master Nodes? A: We will have some services that are available that will help provision nodes into the network. We are still story mapping this flow and architecture. Q: Could we get more information about what you require to do to be a beta tester? A: To be a beta tester you only need to add yourself to the #beta-tester channel here in Slack. You will be notified when we are ready for you to download and install and the process and requirements to continue to run the software Q: Will you keep us informed on a at least weekly base to tell/ show us the progress made? A: Yes! We will continue to drop at least 2 professionally made update videos each week (with Jason Burns the guy who does them) and we will be doing more and more candid videos Q: Who is the winner of 10k subs and what idea did he give? And what about 2nd place and 3rd place. A: To be announced shortly. The Substrate is reserved for the payout Q: Can we mine Sub without the software? A: I will personally be selling pick-axes on my personal website "pixaxesforsale.biz" for a low cost of $19.99 Q: Unless they disclose intelligent life in space, people are still going to be mad at the end of this. A lot more will be happy though A: Haven't found intelligent life in space. Some would question finding it on earth. Q: From a legal stand point How are we protected if someone is running illegal content on our Node? A: Take a look at our video of "How Substratum Secures Your Site Content". You will never hold the entire piece of data except perhaps in memory if you are the one serving the request so you could never be culpable. Amazon isn't held responsible if I host illegal content now Q: What about content control? child porno .. and so on ... ? Is there anything to control the content or? A: Excellent question. This was a big concern for us. We do not want Substratum to become the dark web. The goal is to allow the community to self-govern, vote up and down, call out illegal activity. The utilities will allow those with bad intentions to be called out. The more we grow the better we will be about wiping out things like child porn, and just as bad human trafficking. Q: When will the raised money going to be donated? A: We have already donated $10K out and we have a pending wire for $40K going out Monday. We are working to find the BEST places with the IMMEDIATE needs. Q: When will the livestream of the burn be? A: Burn #1 will be a livestream of my computer screen later tonight. I will announce on twitter at least an hour ahead of time and we will record it so people can see it later Q: What will the final circulating supply be after all three token burns? A: We are still getting a FINAL number on this, we are still doing some FINAL Bonus sends but we will have the number VERY VERY soon and we will be posting it. We will be burning 60MIL tokens tonight so that should give you some kind of an idea. Q: can you stop slack from freezing my firefox? A: Use the downloadable app, or get better internet, or get a new computer. Sounds like a dumpster fire. Q: Everyone brings up the obvious choice of child porno that needs to be dealt with via content control. What about grayzones such as weed-selling sites? Its illegal in some countries, some not. How will Substratum deal with these grey-zones? A: Give me liberty or give me death. Q: Could i have an invite to beta test channel on slack? A: Yes, just let a moderator know. Q: could i get more information on what beta testers are required to do? I will happily be one if it helps the process and I actually manage to do it. A: Join the #beta-testers channel here Q: when will we see a new homepage? A: This is being worked on now! Q: is there a minimum amount of SUB needed to run a node? A: NO! 0 Substrate, don't worry, you will have some soon once you turn it on Q: What about running an "micronode" on any phone (there is a big % using phones all the time), I mean an app installed on phone to run a node and to host only small content like a photos... Did you think about of this? A: https://youtu.be/h6tZ_ZFuFmY Q: What if my website ethically and morally right and people downvote it out of jealousy will my website be removed if there are more number of downvotes and my content is clean? A: The process is NOT that simple, we will release more details later but this is being taken into consideration. I answered in a bit more detail above as well Q: Does the Sub team ever sleep ? A: Only when driving Q: Can I run a node on a VPS? A: I certainly won't be telling people how or where to run the node software. Do the best you can. I actually answered the VPS question above too. We will have a command line version if that is the question. That you can run on something like Ubuntu Server if you want Q: Can the voting system for all illegal stuff on the internet also be used in a 'bad' way on the regular websites to for example gain commercial/business advantages? A: It should not, no one will have 'master control' All control, so the market decides always. Q: Who will profit from cryptopay? How will this bring value to SUB tokens? A: Everyone will as we gain dominance. But also, Substratum the company will take a small percentage. This will enable us to continue building awesome apps. CryptoPay will be the cornerstone of many good things to come. Think retail, goods and services. Q: I work at a games company with 200+ high powered pcs. If I install sub nodes on every single one of them at night, will IT be able to catch and fire me A: See your HR manual, or HR supervisor for those questions. Q: How do websites and hosters remain protected from hacking, if sites are created with innate vulnerabilities does that expose other sites hosted by the same node? A: This is a great question. Hosting Nodes will have to vet out their security. Again, being decentralized goes a long way in providing security. So does encryption. We will help hosts be the best hosts possible. Q: Please explain the earning in SUB by running a node? A: So the SUB comes FROM the HOST (who purchases the SUB) to the NODE for the cost of the transaction. https://youtu.be/LWZ1DIGGOoQ Q: When will the tokens be sent for the 100 Sub giveaway A: Shortly Q: How will Substratum market themselves towards countries that needs SUB the most but are hard to reach, such as North Korea, Africa, China? A: Think spider web. The more that join, and use, the less it can be controlled. Q: How long will this bear market last for? A: Let me put the fortune teller hat on. Crypto is a young demographic currently. It will be bear'ish until we make the technology easier and they get older.
Off-chain payment fields authorize an amount between nodes but the transaction item does not settle until later time. This allows instant transactions processing within the fields and automatically reconcile across all participants. All transactions details will be encoded within payment fields before sync back to the supernode, which will prevent highly sensitive information (eg. PII data) leaked to the public. About ALZA The efficiency of decentralized book systems like Bitcoin and Ethereum has always been a challenge. It is usually measured by three major factors: scalability, throughput, and latency. Scalability refers to how the system capacity is increased by adding more physical resources. Throughput measures the volume of transactions for a given period of time, where most current solutions attempt to improve such as NEO, EOS, etc. Latency measures the processing time of any single transaction. In current blockchain based systems, the block generation rate is the main latency bottleneck. Off-chain processes such as state channels are the most recent work that can integrate partial inbound transactions, reducing latency. Unfortunately, the state channel introduces more issues at the same time, such as cross-channel synchronization, which makes the state channel unavailable for full adoption of current blockchain solutions. In order to solve the efficiency problem, we proposed an end-to-end solution called ALZA, which links the dedicated high-throughput blockchain with self-organizing payment fields. This mechanism allows arbitrary set of users to create payment fields that process extremely low latency transactions within each field. Therefore, users can make transactions almost immediately. Since all transactions are conducted within fields, transaction costs will be reduced by several orders of magnitude. In addition, ALZA distributes main ledger to each client through an innovative replication mechanism. Therefore, the system will be significantly more robust to blockchain system failures. In theory, ALZA can complete millions of transactions in one second, which naturally supports high-frequency trading. Kucoin Binance Bit-Z Bibox Linkcoin Qryptos Bitrue
Taking Bitcoin as an example, the network nodes may be divided into four major groups: full nodes, listening nodes (supernodes), miner’s nodes, and lightweight or SPV clients. Full nodes are the ones that really support and secure the Bitcoin blockchain, and they are indispensable to the network. Bitcoin & Cryptocurrencies; binance KuCoin. Exchange Tokens: The New Digital Gold Rush? Jelmer Steenhuis April 10, 2019 No Comments. Share this! Trading exchange tokens are a new digital gem in the crypto markets. These native tokens can be used by investors to buy IOE’s coins on the exchange. Since the beginning of the cryptocurrency market back in 2012, trading in Bitcoin and other related ... Binance Börse für Kryptowährungen - Wir betreiben für Bitcoin und Altcoins die größte Börse der Welt nach Tradingvolume . Secret Erfahrungen - 2 Studentinnen packen aus - ZU-ZWEIT . Laut Nutzer Erfahrungen fallen kaum Fakes auf, dafür jedoch viele Profile ohne Fotos, die dann kaum mit Informationen ausgefüllt sind. Da sucht man unter Umstände eine bisschen, bis man auf ein Profil ... Hereby we will discuss the different types of Bitcoin nodes: full nodes, supernodes, miner nodes, and SPV clients. Bitcoin nodes. Diving into the context of blockchains - which are designed as distributed systems - the network of computer nodes is what makes it possible for Bitcoin to be used as a decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) digital currency. As such, it is censorship-resistant by design ... Binance announced its plans to initiate an open blockchain project, Venus, an initiative to develop localized stablecoins and digital assets pegged to fiat currencies across the globe. Binance is looking to create new alliances and partnerships with governments, corporations, technology companies, and other cryptocurrency companies and projects involved in the larger blockchain ecosystem, to ... SINGAPORE–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Roxe Chain Foundation Limited, a Singapore non-profit that owns and operates the Roxe Chain blockchain, today announced its Supernodes Partner Program outlining its key benefits and requirements, as well as how companies can apply to become a supernode. Roxe Chain technology powers third-party applications to transfer value as instantly as information is ... The graph shows that over half of the nodes in the Bitcoin network are running older versions than the current 0.17.x iteration. Listening ‘super’ nodes. Sometimes referred to as ‘supernodes,’ listening nodes perform more work on the Bitcoin network than full nodes do. All listening nodes are publicly connectable and function as ... Bitcoin's energy consumption has been a matter of great concern. Curiously, the insane amount of power required to keep the Bitcoin blockchain alive is also what keeps the network secure. Bitcoin suffers from a vulnerability called the 51% attack. If a single entity can control 51% of the total hash power of the network, it can manipulate the ... Horizen introduced supernodes on their network as a way to implement sidechain capabilties. There are two types of supernodes on the Horizen network. They run on different software and have different specifications. 48000000: 6: 28315: 250: 27.11: 4.5: Horizen Supernodes (Zen-500) Mar 29, 2019 - Explore Coin Trader's board "Trading" on Pinterest. See more ideas about Cryptocurrency, Blockchain, Bitcoin.
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